Essay eyewitness testimony
The case revolved around the credibility of her identification. The Court laid out the following factors that must be considered in such cases. The Court said that courts had to consider: Whether the witness had a good chance to see the criminal. How much the witness was paying attention. How accurate the witness's description was. How certain the witness was. How long of a time elapsed between the crime and the identification of the criminal.
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The Supreme Court set these out as the factors that must be considered. Eyewitness Testimony Etc In a. Loftus notes that science has found "post-event information" is integrated into what most people have actually experienced because, "when people experience some actual event -- say a crime or an accident -- they often later acquire new information about the event. This new information can contaminate the memory" Loftus, , March, p.
In addition, many false memories are created, deliberately or by accident, in response to leading questioning by therapists or aggressive lawyers. But here, too, therapists, interrogators, lawyers, or worried parents may be innocent of any conscious intent to produce false testimony" Callahan, , p.
Callahan noted that once a false memory has been established, it becomes, for all intents and purposes, a true account to the one remembering it. Working a security guard at a Burger King, MacPhail was shot when he attempted to defend a man being assaulted in a nearby parking lot. At the trial seven witnesses testified that they had seen Davis shoot MacPhail, and two others testified that that Davis had confessed the murders to them. However, the murder weapon was never recovered. Ballistic evidence linked earlier shootings and bullets recovered at the scene to those of another shooting in which Davis was also charged.
In he was convicted of murder and the earlier shootings. He was sentenced to death. Davis maintained his…… [Read More]. Eyewitness Testimony Problems One of.
The precautions that interviewers from social workers to district attorneys must take with children extend to all eyewitnesses. These include such procedures as having witnesses interviewed by someone who has no established theory about the case; having the interviewer make a written assessment of the eyewitness' certainty and apparent accuracy immediately after an interview; taking caution in repeating a question; and warning witnesses to a line-up that the suspect may or may not be present so that the…… [Read More].
Eyewitness Testimony and Memory Issues When investigating and prosecuting crimes and other incidents, their can be a heavy level of reliance on eyewitness testimony to substantiate the facts that are suggested by other evidence and to fill in missing gaps in the story of the crime, accident, or other incident.
This can be a problem, however, as two different eyewitness accounts of the same incident are likely to differ significantly in many ways, and even the same eyewitness can remember details differently at different intervals of time following the incident. This is due to the human function of memory: the differences between short- and long-term memory, the processes involved in creating and reinforcing memory, and various techniques that can be used to help bring out memories but are not always reliable.
This paper will examine and explore many of the issues related to memory and eyewitness recall. Short-term memory occurs…… [Read More]. Criminal Eyewitness Testimony Eyewitness Testimony or the.
Criminal Eyewitness Testimony Eyewitness testimony, or the sworn oath of persons who believe they have witnesses a crime, or portion of a crime, has long been studied in both the fields of criminology and psychology. Thus, there is a very real concern with the contemporary judicial system that even at the best of times and with the best and most credible witness, eyewitness testimony is often suspect. Literature eview -- The three articles under consideration are quite detailed in their literature review, citing examples from…… [Read More].
Framework for Understanding Children's Eyewitness Testimony.
In as much as intelligence is influenced by experience, the elderly have opportunity to acquire and process enormous amounts of information. While short-term memory may be affected by attention and emotions, the corpus of information available to an older adult is substantial, and -- unless they show signs of progressive or absolute deterioration as in dementia -- they tend to be skeptical with a broad base of human behavior available for comparison and contrast. Psychologists suggest that the schemas of older adults tend to solidify, as people tend to look for characteristics and events that support their frame of reference.
In your…… [Read More]. It is therefore critical to reexamine the policies and procedures surrounding the collection and use of eyewitness testimony in criminal cases. Emerging research in perception, cognition, and the study of memory provides the framework with which to base a reform of criminal justice procedures. Training of police officers, and a comprehensive debriefing of judges, juries, and the witnesses themselves, are also possible solutions for minimizing problems with eyewitness reports.
Free eyewitness testimony Essays and Papers
Although eyewitness testimony can be tremendously helpful in criminal cases, the evidence must be analyzed in a scientific and systematic manner. Some of the…… [Read More]. Eye witness testimony can be unreliable for a plethora of reasons, not the least of which include ulterior motives on the part of the individual testifying. People do not always testify to ensure that justice is served. Witness tampering can definitely affect the veracity of what eye-witnesses state when they testify, including partisanship tendencies towards sides of the issue considered in court. From a cognitive perspective, however, there have been several studies performed that empirically validate the fact that the mind and various facets of it is not always consistent with reality.
Perhaps the most tenuous aspect of cognition in regards to eye-witness testimony relates to the nature of memory. People do not always remember things correctly. Crucial details including those related to size, color, and even sequence, are extremely mutable to one's memory. Eye-witnesses, then, can actually observe an event that they are brought into court to testify about,…… [Read More].
Eyewitness and ecalling Shook hands I shook hands with Bugs Bunny Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events? I shook hands with Bugs Bunny An eyewitness goes through different psychological procedures prior to the courtroom testimony. It is evident that before…… [Read More]. Misidentification of Suspect Eyewitnesses and Innocence Project.
As many as one in every four eyewitness identifications prove to be incorrect California Innocence Project, The Innocence Project therefore works in part to train law enforcement departments to develop eyewitness interrogation procedures that eliminate bias and prevent misidentification of suspects.
The case of onald Cotton highlighted some of the specific problems with witness identification through the use of police lineups. Inadvertent use of pressure and subtle verbal or nonverbal cues may cause eyewitnesses to misidentify a suspect, especially when the law enforcement officers administering the lineup knows who their suspect was in the case.
The victim of the crime might be misled by officer support for their decisions. Stress, trauma, and general anxiety may also be…… [Read More]. Faulty Eyewitness Identificaiton Prevalence. Evidence has revealed that eyewitness memory can affect identification. The independent variables are age, race and alcohol intoxication, while the dependent variable is the eyewitness identifications. Thus, the independent variables can affect the dependent variables in the sense that older adults and children often face challenges in recollecting events thereby likely to make an eyewitness misidentification.
People who are intoxicated with alcohol are more likely to incorrectly identify someone in a lineup or in court. Moreover, an eyewitness is likely to make a bias towards other ethnic groups thereby giving false eyewitness identifications. Use of the Scientific Method. Reliability of Eyewitness Testimony The Scientific Method The scientific method is one of the most commonly utilized mechanisms in physical science to develop and conduct experiments.
This method consists of several sequential steps, which are reflections of what happens during the scientific process. The use of the scientific method in conducting experiments is influenced by its ability to help lessen experimental bias and errors, which contribute towards poor results. Through lessening bias and errors in experiments, the scientific method enhances the reliability and accuracy of the results, which in turn enhances the researcher's confidence.
The sequential steps in this method contribute to achievement of accurate results through proper organization of thoughts and procedures by scientists when performing an experiment Science Made Simple, n. As a result of its capability to produce accurate results in experiments, the scientific method can be applied to problems or challenges in a particular field of…… [Read More]. Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance. Threat or perception of threat is best described by protection motivation theory: This theory states that the extent to which people show preventive behavior in light of a threat depends on their protection motivation.
According to this theory, the level of protection motivation depends on the seriousness of the threat, the probability that the threat will manifest itself, the judged efficacy of the recommended behavior called response or outcome efficacy , and the self-efficacy expectation relating to that behavior. By doing so this the individual, and…… [Read More]. Psychology Social Psychology in the. These factors can be difficult, if not impossible to overcome, and lead to numerous problems in the court system, from hung juries to incorrect decisions about guilt or innocence.
Trial lawyers are exceedingly good at using social psychology methods during trials. These lawyers use the principles of how people relate to each other and get along in life to make their clients seem more sympathetic and innocent to the jury and judge. For example, a murder suspect comes to court with his young baby in the front row for all the jury and courtroom to see. These psychological persuasion tactics are quite influential to many jurors, who have their own belief systems and ideas about what is right and wrong and the lawyers understand this and use it to their advantage.
Gordon, Betty N.